Publications and scientific papers of Pasteur Institute…
Grujic, Jasmina; Bujandric, Nevenka; Banović, Pavle
In: Healthcare, 10 (8), 2022.
The reduction in the risk of transfusion-transmissible infections (including HIV infection) is an essential part of transfusion patient care. Here, we report the first incident of HIV transmission via transfusion in north Serbia due to blood donor dishonesty, and the failure of the laboratory screen tests to detect the presence of HIV particles in his blood. Infected blood products were distributed to two recipients, and HIV infection was confirmed in one. This incident finally led to the implementation of Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology as mandatory testing of blood donors for HIV infection in Serbia and raised many questions related to the responsibility and ethics of all the participants in the blood transfusion supply chain. There is a need for the implementation of modern and non-discriminative laws in Serbia in order to reduce transfusion-transmissible infections. In addition, transfusion institutes in Serbia need to be obliged to pursue the constant upgrade of their diagnostic capacities in order to prevent similar incidents and to provide the best possible care for blood donation recipients.
M, Kunze; P, Banović; P, Bogovič; V, Briciu; R, Čivljak; G, Dobler; A, Hristea; J, Kerlik; S, Kuivanen; Kynčl, J; A-M, Lebech; L, Lindquist; I, Paradowska-Stankiewicz; S, Roglić; D, Smíšková; F, Strle; O, Vapalahti; N, Vranješ; N, Vynograd; JM, Zajkowska; A, Pilz; A, Palmborg; Erber, W
In: Microorganisms, 10 (7), 2022.
There has been an increase in reported TBE cases in Europe since 2015, reaching a peak in some countries in 2020, highlighting the need for better management of TBE risk in Europe. TBE surveillance is currently limited, in part, due to varying diagnostic guidelines, access to testing, and awareness of TBE. Consequently, TBE prevalence is underestimated and vaccination recommendations inadequate. TBE vaccine uptake is unsatisfactory in many TBE-endemic European countries. This review summarizes the findings of a scientific workshop of experts to improve TBE surveillance and vaccine uptake in Europe. Strategies to improve TBE surveillance and vaccine uptake should focus on: aligning diagnostic criteria and testing across Europe; expanding current vaccine recommendations and reducing their complexity; and increasing public education of the potential risks posed by TBEV infection.
Banović, Pavle; Díaz-Sánchez, Adrian Alberto; Đurić, Selena; Sević, Siniša; Turkulov, Vesna; Lendak, Dajana; Mikić, Sandra Stefan; Simin, Verica; Mijatović, Dragana; Bogdan, Ivana; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Savić, Sara; Obregón, Dasiel; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro
In: Pathogens, 2022.
The tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes a life-threatening disease named Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). The clinical symptoms associated with TBE range from non-specific to severe inflammation of the central nervous system and are very similar to the clinical presentation of other viral meningitis/encephalitis. In consequence, TBE is often misclassified by clinical physicians , mainly in the non-identified high-risk areas where none or only a few TBE cases have been reported. Considering this situation, we hypothesized that among persons from northern Serbia who recovered from viral meningitis or encephalitis, there would be evidence of TBEV infection. To test this hypothesis, in this observational study, we evaluated the seroreactivity against TBEV anti-gens in patients from northern Serbia who were hospitalized due to viral meningitis and/or viral encephalitis of unknown etiology. Three cases of seroreactivity to TBEV antigens were discovered among convalescent patients who recovered from viral meningitis and/or encephalitis and accepted to participate in the study (n = 15). The clinical and laboratory findings of these patients overlap with that of seronegative convalescent patients. Although TBE has been a notifiable disease in Serbia since 2004, there is no active TBE surveillance program for the serologic or molecular screening of TBEV infection in humans in the country. This study highlights the necessity to increase the awareness of TBE among physicians and perform active and systematic screening of TBEV antibodies among patients with viral meningitis and/or encephalitis.
Banović, Pavle; Díaz-Sánchez, Adrian Alberto; Simin, Verica; Foucault-Simonin, Angelique; Galon, Clemence; Chuang, Alejandra Wu; Mijatović, Dragana; Obregon, Dasiel; Moutailler, Sara; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro
In: Frontiers in Microbiology, 2022.
Ticks carry numerous pathogens that, if transmitted, can cause disease in susceptible humans and animals. The present study describes our approach on how to investigate clinical presentations following tick bites in humans. To this aim, the occurrence of major tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in human blood samples (n = 85) and the ticks collected (n = 93) from the same individuals were tested using an unbiased high-throughput pathogen detection microfluidic system. The clinical symptoms were characterized in enrolled patients. In patients with suspected TBP infection, serological assays were conducted to test for the presence of antibodies against specific TBPs. A field study based on One Health tenets was further designed to identify components of a potential chain of infection resulting in Rickettsia felis infection in one of the patients. Ticks species infesting humans were identified as Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.), Dermacentor reticulatus, and Haemaphysalis punctata. Five patients developed local skin lesions at the site of the tick bite including erythema migrans, local non-specific reactions, and cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction. Although Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Babesia microti, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Candidatus Cryptoplasma sp. DNAs were detected in tick samples, different Rickettsia species were the most common TBPs identified in the ticks. The presence of TBPs such as Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Borrelia lusitaniae, Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia afzelii, A. phagocytophilum, and B. microti in ticks was further confirmed by DNA sequencing. Two of the patients with local skin lesions had IgG reactive against spotted fever group rickettsiae, while IgM specific to B. afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia spielmanii were detected in the patient with erythema migrans. Although R. felis infection was detected in one human blood sample, none of the components of the potential chain of infection considered in this study tested positive to this pathogen either using direct pathogen detection in domestic dogs or xenodiagnosis in ticks collected from domestic cats. The combination of high-throughput screening of TBPs and One Health approaches might help characterize chains of infection leading to human infection by TBPs, as well as prevalence of emerging rickettsial pathogens in the Balkan region.
Smieško, Gordana; Banović, Pavle; Gusman, Vera; Milosavljević, Biljana; Medić, Deana; Bulajić, Tamara; Budinski, Milica Pejaković; Golocorbin-Kon, Svetlana
In: Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis, 38 (4), 2022.
Here we present the first case of Aerococcus urinae isolated from urine sample of a 5-year-old boy from Vojvodina province (Serbia). The patient had predisposing factors related to the susceptibility of genitourinary system to infection. Thus, he reported no complaints related to active urinary infections. Eradication of infection was achieved after 10-day treatment with meropenem.
From this case, the question emerges: Is there a possibility that A. urinae infections are neglected in pediatric patients with susceptibility of genitourinary system to infection? Only after wide introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in competent laboratories, we will be able to give a precise answer.
Grujić, Jasmina; Bujandrić, Nevenka; Budakov-Obradović, Zorana; Dolinaj, Vladimir; Savić, Nebojša; Bogdan, Damir; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Mijatović, Dragana; Simin, Verica; Anđelić, Nikola; Banović, Pavle
In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2021.
Passive immunotherapy with convalescent COVID-19 plasma (CCP) is used as a therapeutic procedure in many countries, including Serbia. In this study, we analyzed the association between demographic factors, COVID-19 severity and the reactivity of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (Abs) in Serbian CCP donors. Individuals (n = 468) recovered from confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and who were willing to donate their plasma for passive immunization of COVID-19 patients were enrolled in the study. Plasma samples were tested for the presence of IgG reactive to SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (S1) and nucleocapsid antigens. Individuals were characterized according to age, gender, comorbidities, COVID-19 severity, ABO blood type and RhD factor. Total of 420 candidates (420/468; 89.74%) reached the levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG that qualified them for inclusion in CCP donation program. Further statistical analysis showed that male individuals (p = 0.034), older age groups (p < 0.001), existence of hypertension (p = 0.008), and severe COVID-19 (p = 0.000) are linked with higher levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs. These findings will guide the selection of CCP donors in Serbia. Further studies need to be conducted to assess the neutralization potency and clinical efficiency of CCP collected from Serbian donors with high anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG reactivity.
Charles, Roxanne A.; Bermúdez, Sergio; Banović, Pavle; Obregon, Dasiel; Díaz-Sánchez, Adrian Alberto; Corona-González, Belkis; Etter, Eric Marcel Charles; González, Islay Rodríguez; Gaffar, Abdul; Jabbar, Abdul; Moutailler, Sara; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro
In: Pathogens, 10 (10), 2021.
Ticks have complex life cycles which involve blood-feeding stages found on wild and
domestic animals, with humans as accidental hosts. At each blood-feeding stage, ticks can transmit
and/or acquire pathogens from their hosts. Therefore, the circulation of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs),
especially the zoonotic ones, should be studied in a multi-layered manner, including all components
of the chain of infections, following the ‘One Health’ tenets. The implementation of such an approach
requires coordination among major stakeholders (such as veterinarians, physicians, acarologists,
and researchers) for the identification of exposure and infection risks and application of effective
prevention measures. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge on the epidemiology of
tick-borne diseases in Central America and the Caribbean and the challenges associated with the
implementation of ‘One Health’ surveillance and control programs in the region.
Milan, Miljevic; Verica, Simin; Jelena, Blagojevic; Borislav, Cabrilo; Olivera, Bjelic-Cabrilo
In: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 69 (3), 2021.
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In the present study, 64 golden jackals were examined for intestinal helminths in three regions of Vojvodina, Serbia. Among the examined jackals 57.8% were infected with at least one parasite species. Using the intestinal scraping technique (SCT), eight species of intestinal helminths were found: Alaria alata (7.8%), Toxascaris leonina (9.4%), Toxocara canis (4.7%), Uncinaria stenocephala (20.3%), Echinococcus multilocularis (14.1%), Mesocestoides sp. (42.2%), Taenia pisiformis, and Taenia hydatigena (the overall prevalence of Taenia infection was 6.3%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of T. leonina in jackals from Serbia. In comparison with the SCT results, coprological tests were less sensitive and specific for parasite identification, as only two nematode species (T. leonina and T. canis) as well as ancylostomatid and taeniid eggs were identified. The total prevalence of intestinal helminths was higher in males (71.9% males, 45% females), but the difference was not statistically significant (χ 2 = 3.76; P = 0.052). Co-infection with two species of intestinal helminths was found in 35% of the examined golden jackal individuals, three-species co-infection was demonstrated in 21.6%, whereas four-species co-infection was detected in 2.7% of the golden jackals examined. Echinococcus multilocularis has previously been recorded in jackals and foxes in Serbia, but only in Vojvodina. Our results corroborate the findings of previous studies, and indicate that the Vojvodina Province, more specifically the Srem region, is probably a high-risk area for E. multilocularis transmission to humans.
In: Srpski medicinski časopis Lekarske komore, 2 (1), pp. 11-15, 2021.
Zarazne bolesti su postojale u obliku epidemija tokom istorije čovečanstva, a patogeni mikroorganizmi su dugo bili smatrani odgovornim za njihovo pojavljivanje. Međutim, takozvani biološki agensi akutnih zaraznih bolesti nisu njihovi stvarni uzroci, već samo katalizatori već postojećih patoloških procesa. Otuda ekstremna varijabilnost lokacije i intenziteta patoloških procesa sa istim biološkim uzročnikom kod različitih jedinki vrste domaćina. Patogenost i virulencija mikroorganizama nisu njihova vlastita i nepromenljiva svojstva, već su samo rezultat patogenosti neživih faktora životne sredine koji deluju na domaćina i koji obično ostaju van fokusa medicinskih istraživanja. Pitanje od glavne praktične važnosti, kako da sprečimo pojavu zaraznih bolesti, daje nam istorija. U prošlosti su mnoge higijenske mere bile dovoljne da se većina zaraznih bolesti svede na neznatnu pojavu. Do sada je društvo puno uradilo na higijenskim standardima čvrstih i tečnih materija u našem okruženju. Međutim, briga o higijeni atmosfere i dalje je prilično nerazvijena i zanemarena. Danas se atmosfera neprekidno i sistematski zagađuje određenim gasovima, parama kao i česticama. Direktni rezultat ovakog stanja razvoja higijenske prakse je da su danas jedina vrsta epidemija koje pogađaju opštu populaciju epidemije koje se šire atmosferom, tj. respiratorne epidemije. Da bi se trajno eliminisala dalja mogućnost respiratornih epidemija, neophodno je uvesti trajne i sistematske mere za održavanje higijene atmosfere ljudskih naselja.
Banović, Pavle; Díaz-Sánchez, Adrian Alberto; Galon, Clemence; Foucault-Simonin, Angélique; Simin, Verica; Mijatović, Dragana; Papić, Luka; Wu-Chuang, Alejandra; Obregon, Dasiel; Moutailler, Sara; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro
In: One Health, 2021.
Tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) have complex life cycles involving tick vectors and vertebrate hosts. However, there is limited empirical evidence on the zoonotic circulation of TBPs. In this study, we used a One Health approach to study the possible circulation of TBPs in ticks, animals and humans within a rural household in the foothills of the Fruška Gora mountain, northern Serbia. The presence of TBP DNA was assessed using microfluidic PCR (25 bacterial species, 7 parasite species, 5 bacterial genera, 3 parasite genera) in animal, human and tick samples and the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) RNA was screened for using RT-qPCR on tick samples. In addition, Lyme borreliosis serology was assessed in patient sera. Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes ricinus ticks were identified on dogs and Haemaphysalis punctata was identified on house walls. Rickettsia helvetica was the most common pathogen detected in pooled R. sanguineus and I. ricinus tick samples, followed by Hepatozoon canis. None of the H. punctata tick samples tested positive for the presence of TBPs. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia monacensis were the most frequent pathogens detected in dogs, followed by Rickettsia felis, whereas Anaplasma bovis was the only pathogen found in one of the goats tested. None of the human blood samples collected from family members tested positive for the presence of TBPs. Although microfluidic PCR did not detect Borrelia sp. in any of the tested tick or blood samples, a family member with a history of Lyme disease was seropositive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). We conclude that, despite the presence of TBPs in tick and vertebrate reservoirs, there is no evidence of infection with TBPs across various components of the epidemiological chain in a rural Fruška Gora household.
Ristić, Jelena; Bogdan, Damir; Banović, Pavle
In: Medicinski podmladak, 72 (1), pp. 6-11, 2021.
Uvod: Stres je skup reakcija organizma koje nastaju usled dejstva faktora spoljašnje sredine. Da bi se održala homeostaza i zaštitio organizam, uključuju se brojni adaptacioni mehanizmi. Stresori koji deluju trenutno ili kratkoročno izazivaju akutni stres koji ima protektivni efekat. Kada stresor deluje duže, a organizam ne uspeva da odgovori na izazov, javlja se hronični stres koji vodi u patološko stanje. Hronični stres je, kao etiološki faktor, doveden u vezu sa poremećajima menstrualnog ciklusa žena. Cilj: Cilj je ispitati dejstvo hroničnog imobilizacionog stresa na estrusni ciklus kod ženki miševa NMRI soja. Materijal i metode: Dvanaest polno zrelih ženki miševa NMRI soja nasumično je podeljeno u kontrolnu (n = 6) i eksperimentalnu grupu (n = 6). Eksperimentalnoj grupi je indukovan hronični stres ubacivanjem u imobilizacione komore 2 sata dnevno u periodu od 14 dana. Svakodnevno je svim životinjama uziman vaginalni ispirak od koga je pravljen razmaz radi ispitivanja pod svetlosnim mikroskopom. Analiza preparata je obuhvatala određivanje faza estrusnog ciklusa. Za analizu efekta stresa statistički je ispitana učestalost smenjivanja estrusnih faza u eksperimentalnoj grupi naspram kontrolne. Rezultati: Kod ženki miševa je uočen estrusni ciklus koji se sastoji iz četiri faze: proestrusa, estrusa, metestrusa i diestrusa. U adaptacionom periodu je zapažen prolongirani diestrus, dominantno prisutan u obe grupe. Kod stresiranih jedinki je uočen izlazak iz diestrusa i pojava drugih estrusnih faza, za razliku od kontrolnih kod kojih je diesterus bio znatno učestaliji. Zapažene su neregularnosti u trajanju i smenjivanju faza kod jedinki eksperimentalne grupe, gde se učestalost odstupanja od diestrusa pokazala kao statistički značajna (p < 0,01). Zaključak: Indukovanje imobilizacionog stresa dovodi do izlaska životinja iz diestrusa i velikih varijacija u trajanju i smenjivanju faza estrusnog ciklusa ženki miševa soja NMRI. S obzirom na to da je hormonski mehanizam regulacije estrusnog ciklusa kod ženki miševa soja NMRI sličan mehanizmu regulacije menstrualnog ciklusa kod žena, mogu poslužiti kao dobar model za proučavanje reproduktivnih poremećaja kod žena.
Đurić, Selena; Simin, Verica; Banović, Pavle
In: PONS - Medicinski časopis, 18 (1), 2021.
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Cilj. Ispitati primenljivost direktne imunofluorescencije (DIF) za dokazivanje prisustva borelija u moždanom tkivu prilikom standardizacije animalnog modela neuroborelioze na miševima soja NMRI.
Metode. Istraživanje je sprovedeno na 15 miševa soja NMRI. Svim miševima je supkutano inokulisano 100 µl BSK-H podloge u kojoj se nalazio lokalni izolat Borrelia afzelii. Životinje su žrtvovane nakon inokulacije u III (n=4), IV (n=6) i V (n=5) nedelji, cervikalnom dislokacijom. U uzorkovanim mozgovima miševa se vršilo dokazivanje prisustva borelija direktnom imunofluorescencijom (DIF) i reakcijom lančane polimerizacije (PCR).
Rezultati. Prvi pozitivan nalaz registrovan je u III nedelji nakon inokulacije, kada su borelije uočene u 1 od 4 mozga (25%). Nakon toga se procenat pozitivnih nalaza povećavao: u IV nedelji borelije su registrovane u 3 od 6 mozgova (50%), u V nedelji u 3 od 5 mozgova (60%). Rezultati dobijeni DIF i PCR metodama su pokazali poklapanje.
Zaključak. Na osnovu preliminarnih podataka metoda DIF se pokazala kao praktična niskobučetna metoda za praćenje toka neuro-infekcije. NMRI miševi bi mogli biti pogodan soj za uspostavljanje animalnog modela neuroborelioze. Potrebno je dodatno ispitivanje radi proučavanja kinetike infekcije nervnog sistema NMRI miša nakon V nedelje od subkutane inokulacije, kao i senzitivnosti i specifičnosti DIF metode.
Banović, Pavle; Díaz-Sánchez, Adrian Alberto; Mijatović, Dragana; Vujin, Dragana; Zsolt, Horvath; Vranješ, Nenad; Budakov-Obradovic, Zorana; Bujandric, Nevenka; Grujic, Jasmina; Gaffar, Abdul; Jabbar, Abdul; Simin, Verica; Obregon, Dasiel; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro
Shared Odds of Borrelia and Rabies Virus Exposure in Serbia Journal Article
In: Pathogens, 10 (4), 2021.
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common tick-borne disease in Serbia and other European countries. Rabies is a fatal zoonosis distributed worldwide and is caused by the rabies virus. Professionals at risk of rabies—including veterinarians, hunters, communal service workers, and forestry workers—overlap with some professions at a higher risk of exposure to tick bites and tick-borne pathogen infections. We hypothesized that individuals identified by the public health system as at risk of rabies virus infection, and consequently vaccinated against rabies virus, also share a higher likelihood of Borrelia exposure. To test our hypothesis, a case-control study was carried out during 2019 in Serbia to determine the seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia antibodies in two case groups (individuals at risk and vaccinated against rabies virus) and a control group (individuals without risk of rabies). Individuals vaccinated against rabies following either “pre-exposure protocol” (PrEP, n = 58) or “post-exposure protocol” (PEP, n = 42) were considered as rabies risk groups and healthy blood donors (n = 30) as the control group. The results showed higher Borrelia seroprevalence in PrEP (17.2%; 10/58) and PEP (19.0%; 8/42) groups compared with the control group (6.67%; 2/30). Furthermore, odds ratio (OR) analysis showed that risk of rabies (in either the PrEP (OR = 2.91) or PEP (OR = 3.29) groups) is associated with increased odds of being seropositive to Borrelia. However, the difference in Borrelia seroprevalence between groups was not statistically significant (Chi-square (χ²) test p > 0.05). The shared odds of LB and rabies exposure found in this study suggest that, in countries where both diseases occur, the common citizen can be at risk of both diseases when in a risky habitat. These findings are important to guide physicians in targeting high-risk groups, and diagnose LB, and to guide decision-makers in targeting control and prevention measures for both infections in risk areas.
Banović, Pavle; Obregon, Dasiel; Mijatović, Dragana; Simin, Verica; Stankov, Srđan; Turkulov, Vesna; Sević, Siniša; Budakov-Obradovic, Zorana; Bujandric, Nevenka; Grujic, Jasmina; Díaz-Sánchez, Adrian Alberto; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro
In: Pathogens, 10 , 2021.
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), caused by the TBE virus (TBEV), is a life-threatening disease
with clinical symptoms ranging from non-specific to severe inflammation of the central nervous
system. Despite TBE is a notifiable disease in Serbia since 2004, there is no active TBE surveillance
program for the serologic or molecular screening of TBEV infection in humans in the country. This
prospective cohort study aimed to assess the TBEV exposure among tick-infested individuals in
Serbia during the year 2020. A total of 113 individuals exposed to tick bites were recruited for the
study and screened for anti-TBEV antibodies using a commercial indirect fluorescent antibody test
(IFA) test. Blood samples from 50 healthy donors not exposed to tick bites were included as a control
group. Most of the enrolled patients reported infestations with one tick, being I. ricinus the most
frequent tick found in the participants. The TBEV seroprevalence was higher (13.27%, 15 total 113)
in tick-infested individuals than in healthy donors (4%, 2 total 50), although the difference was
not significant. Notably, male individuals exposed to tick bites showed five times higher relative
risk (RR) of being TBEV-seropositive than healthy donors of the same gender (RR= 5.1, CI = 1.6–19;
p = 0.007). None of the seropositive individuals developed clinical manifestations of TBE, but the first
clinical-stage of Lyme borreliosis (i.e., erythema migrans) was detected in seven of them. Potential
TBEV foci were identified in rural areas, mostly in proximity or within the Fruška Gora mountain.
We conclude that the Serbian population is at high risk of TBEV exposure. Further epidemiological
studies should focus on potential TBEV foci identified in this study. The implementation of active
surveillance for TBEV might contribute to evaluating the potential negative impact of TBE in Serbia.
Adrian Alberto Díaz-Sánchez Pavle Banović, Clemence Galon
In: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, 2020.
Verica, Simin; Mijatović, Dragana; Tomanović, Snežana; Miljević, Milan; Čabrilo, Borislav; Ivana, Bogdan; Banović, Pavle
In: Veterinarski glasnik, 2020.
Introduction. The primary objectives of this study were (1) to determine the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in ticks removed from patients for the purpose of singling out sites with increased risk of Lyme borreliosis, and (2) to determine the presence of IgM and/or IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s. l.) complex in sera of patients who had ticks removed
Materials and Methods. From 108 ticks removed from patients, all were examined zoologically and a sub-sample of 91 ticks was tested using PCR analysis to determine the presence of DNA indicating B. burgdorferi infection. To detect anti-Borrelia IgM and/or IgG antibodies in 61 patients bitten by ticks, we used line recombinant immunoblot test.
Results and Conclusions. The most common tick identified was Ixodes ricinus. B. burgdorferi s. l. was present in 37 of 91 tested ticks (40.7%). Seroconversion against B. burgdorferi s. l. antigen was detected in 12 of 61 patients (19.7%). Most of the infected ticks were from the province of Vojvodina (11 municipalities), with the city of Novi Sad proving to be the site with the highest number of infected ticks, 6 in total.
Gordana, Smieško; Pavle, Banović; Vera, Gusman; Verica, Simin; Cimpean, Anca Maria; Lalošević, Dušan
In: Journal of Molecular Histology, 2020.
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Chronic stress is regarded as a significant factor in the etiology of the many diseases. Numerous methods have been developed through which the effect of chronic stress is examined. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the new experimental model for analysis of immuno-suppression induced by chronic restraint stress, through challenge with conditionally tumorigenic cell line BHK-21/C13. 20 male NMRI mice were randomly divided into 2 groups—control and experimental. Each mouse was subcutaneously inoculated with BHK-21/C13 cells. Stress in the experimental group was induced for 20 days. After the experiment, tumor masses were removed, and analyzed using histology and immunohistochemistry techniques. We found a statistically significant difference (p = 0.034) in tumor expression and tumor volumes (p = 0.0061) between groups, as well as in immunopositivity on Ki67, cytochrome C and matrix metalloproteinase 9. Absence of immune infiltrate was noticed in experimental, and the presence of inflammatory infiltrate at tumor invasion front in control group.
Fedrigolli, Elsa; Bogdan, Damir; Lalošević, Dušan; Banović, Pavle
Proposition Of A Simplified Protocol and New Parameter Introduction In NMRI Mice Anhedonia Induction Journal Article Forthcoming
In: Serbian Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, In press , Forthcoming.
Stankov, Srđan; Obradović, Nemanja; Vujin, Dragana; Vranješ, Nenad
In: Viral Immunology, pp. 1-11, 2020.
Antibody induction test (AIT) is a promising candidate as a refinement of the troublesome National institutes of Health (NIH) test in the sense of animal welfare 3R approach for determination of potency of inactivated rabies vaccines for veterinary and human use. In this study, we initially try to develop AIT as a suitable alternative to NIH test, to achieve a reduction of test duration and diminish animal suffering by omitting intracerebral CVS infection and measuring humoral immunity upon vaccination. Designs of both multi-dose and single-dose AIT were examined. Biological reference preparation, batch 5 with assigned titer of 10 IU/vial, was taken as both standard and test vaccine. Six consecutive AITs were performed and eight pools of sera in each AIT were tested in triplicate by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. We estimated the upper detection limit and calculated test variability for individual dilutions. For multi-dose AIT, we estimated the dose–response function and performed calculations of final test results and statistical validity parameters for both linear and sigmoidal model using CombiStats program. Sigmoidal 4-parameter dose–response model was found optimal. Presented design of
multi-dose AIT showed a satisfactory detection limit for testing of inactivated rabies vaccines for both veterinary and human use. However, due to nonconformity of obtained results with statistical validity criteria, we concluded that the presented model of multi-dose AIT was unsuitable for introduction in routine practice.
However, we concluded that there was a realistic option for introduction of two versions of single-dose AIT. The first version would be with two standard vaccine controls and could be introduced immediately, while the second version would include testing of the sample only and rely on comparison of the induced rabies antibody level with absolute cut-off limits set in advance.
Pavle, Banović; Čapo, Ivan; Ogorelica, Dejan; Vranješ, Nenad; Verica, Simin; Lalošević, Dušan
In: Future Microbiology, 2020.
The majority of suggested mechanisms of Borrelia spreading inside erythema migrans (EM) are developed from in vitro studies and animal models. This report is the first to describe pathomorphological substrate of EM caused by Borrelia spielmanii in humans, addressing the hypothesis of enhanced Borrelia penetration through extracellular matrix. In the process of ruling out of atypical Masters’ disease, we conducted a punch biopsy of suspected EM and a two-tier serology testing for Lyme borreliosis, where we registered antibodies against B. spielmanii. Skin biopsy showed CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte involvement and high activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9. No alterations were detected in distribution and morphology of collagen type I and IV. Therefore, it is suggested that other mechanisms should be considered as major contributing factors to local spreading of B.spielmanii.
Miljević, Milan; Čabrilo, Olivera Bjelić; Simin, Verica; Čabrilo, Borislav; Miljević, Jelena Boganč; Lalošević, Dušan
In: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 64 (4), 2019, ISSN: 1588-2705.
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In the present study, 223 foxes were collected from various localities in the northern part of the Republic of Serbia (Vojvodina province) and examined for intestinal helminths. Among the examined foxes 178 (79.8%) were infected. The most frequently identified parasites were Mesocestoides spp. (49.3%) and Toxascaris leonina (36.3%). The parasite with the lowest prevalence was Pterygodermatites affinis (0.9%), and this is the first confirmed finding in Serbia. The other recovered species were Alaria alata (25.6%), Taenia spp. (6.3%), Echinococcus multilocularis (13%), Toxocara canis (16.6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (14.8%). The highest number of foxes infected with E. multilocularis were in the Srem area. The results of this study indicate the presence of helminth species in red foxes in Vojvodina which may also infect humans.
Banović, Pavle; Mijatović, Dragana; Lalošević, Dušan
In: Praxis medica, 48 (3-4), 2019.
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Migratory erythema is the most common manifestation of the first (early) phase of Lyme borreliosis. It is defined as the spreding rash or redness at the site of the tick bite. Although the occurrence of migratory erythema indicates the presence of local infection with pathogenic strains of bacteria from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, the exact mechanism by which
spirochetes conductspreading in human skin has not been elucidated. This paper will review the literature, initially related to tick-pathogen-host interaction, after which the most common theories of the development of specific morphology of migratory erythema will be presented, as well as differential diagnostic problems that may arise from infection with other pathogens or the development of various allergic and autoimmune conditions.
Glavaški, Mila; Banović, Pavle; Lalošević, Dušan
Number and Distribution of Mast Cells in Reproductive Systems of Gravid and Non-Gravid Female Mice Journal Article Forthcoming
In: Serbian Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, 20 (4), Forthcoming.
Tags: mast cells| | |
Mast cells are mainly distributed in tissues exposed to the external environment, but they are also found in ovaries, oviducts and uterus. We determined the difference in the number and distribution of Alcian Blue (+) and Safranine O (+) mast cells in reproductive systems of gravid and non-gravid female mice by histological examination. We showed that the number of mast cells is significantly higher in the reproductive system of gravid mice than in the reproductive system of non-gravid mice. Mast cells are unevenly distributed in ovaries, oviducts and uterusin both gravid and non-gravid mice. A large number of mast cells reside close to blood vessels throughout the entire reproductive system.
Gordana, Smieško; Vera, Gusman; Pavle, Banović
In: Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo, 2019.
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Aeromonas hydrophila is representative of group
within the Aeromonadaceae family that mainly cause
infections in humans. Aeromonads can induce
meningitis, septicemia, respiratory and hemolytic
uremic syndrome as well as gastroenteritis. Regarding
diverse mechanisms involved in virulence and
metabolic adaptation of A. hydrophila to various hosts
and environments it is often introduced as “Jack of all
trades”. Here we report first isolation of Aeromonas
hydrophila from urine samples of the three patients
from Urology Department within Clinical Centre of
Vojvodina. Epidemiological survey identified contact
with surface water as only mutual risk parameter.
Following that, novel antibacterial agents against A.
hydrophila are discussed.
Lalošević, Dušan; Banović, Pavle; Cvjetković, Boris; Stumpf, Iris; Lalošević, Vesna; Vranješ, Nenad
ULCERATED NONHEALING SUBCUTANEOUS NODULE AT THE CAT – A CASE OF MYCETOMA AND FAMILIAL DERMATOMYCOSIS OF OWNERS Journal Article
In: Medical Data, 11 (2), pp. 107-109, 2019.
Micetom kao pseudotumorski infiltrat izazvan gljivama ili nekim bakterijama, retko se vidi u biopsijskom materijalu. Prikazujemo slučaj mačke, koji je povezan i sa gljivičnom infekcijom više članova porodice vlasnika. Vlasnička porodica ima pet članova od kojih su četiri imali dermatomikozu. Mogući uzročnici su Microsporum canis i Coccidioides spp.
Mijatović, Dragana; Simin, Verica; Vujin, Dragana; Miljević, Milan; Nikolić, Nataša; Vranješ, Nenad
In: MD-Medical Data, 10 (4), pp. 209-2011, 2018.
Bed bugs are ectoparasites of people, chickens, bats and occasionally the domestic animals and feed by the host’s blood. They are nocturnal and come out of their shelter in bed or other furniture. In humans, the place of the bite shows the local reaction that is followed by itching and forming of the crust. 68-years-old female patient reports at the Pasteur Institute for emerging bite-like wounds on the skin followed by strong itching. Physical examination of patient revealed that the causative agent could be insect. After determination of the insects delivered by the patient next day, organism was identified as Cimex lectularius, Linaeus, 1758 - bed bug. The treatment of the patient who are bitten by the bed bugs consist of lowering of itching by local corticosteroids and oral antihistamines and the prevention of the secondary bacterial infection.
Lalošević, Dušan; Pobor, Marta; Pete, Maria; Vukobratov, Zita; Banović, Pavle; Ružić, Maja
In: MD-Medical Data, 10 (4), pp. 205-207, 2018.
A 62-year-old patient, in good condition, reported to the doctor for vomiting and diarrhea. A month after the beginning of oral bee pollen intake, he developed symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract, with approximately ten water diarrheas per day. In complete blood count and liver function tests, eosinophilia with 1,638x109/l (21% of 7,8x109/l WBC) and elevated liver enzymes were found. Parasitological examination of the stool revealed the mass of pollen grains of various plants with a large number of Charcot-Leyden crystals. It was concluded that the patient was sensitive to pollen and was advised to stop the self-medication.
Banović, Pavle; Stankov, Srđan; Vranješ, Nenad; Zurković, Ognjen; Čapo, Ivan; Lalošević, Dušan
In: JBUON, 23 (6), pp. 1904-1911, 2018, ISSN: 1107-0625, online ISSN: 2241-6293.
Purpose: To examine the antitumor effects of Mebendazole (MZ) in a model of experimental fibrosarcoma induced by inoculation of BHK-21/C13 cells in Syrian golden hamster.
Methods: Hamsters were inoculated with a suspension of BHK cells by subcutaneous injection and randomly divided into 5 experimental and 2 control groups. Treatment started on the 10th day after inoculation, when the tumor grew to a diameter of 5mm. The experimental design was based on distributing the total amount of drug MZ(z) in different protocols and approaches (oral/intraperitoneal) to the 5 experimental groups. The positive control group received doxorubicin intraperitoneally. Negative control group received olive oil orally. The total amount of MZ(z) was chosen to be the highest for the animal to survive during the experiment. For antitumor effect evaluation, the main parameters were tu mor size, number of mitoses, cytochrome-C immunopositivity and tumor tissue morphology incuding cytoarchitecture and percentage of preserved tumor tissue in stereologically reconstructed tumor mass.
Results: The results of this study showed absence of objective MZ antitumor effect on experimental fibrosarcoma. MZ does not exhibit activity similar to DNA-damaging agents on the fibrosarcoma model.
Conclusions: It might be postulated that soft tissue tumors on animal models could show high level of resistance to MZ effect.
Čabrilo, Olivera Bjelić; Simin, Verica; Miljević, Vilan; Čabrilo, Borislav; Mijatović, Dragana; Lalošević, Dušan
In: SCIENDO / Helminthologia, 5 , pp. 213–221, 2018, ISSN: 3.
As part of routine monitoring of foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and jackals (Canis aureus) on the territory of Vojvodina province (northern Serbia), an analysis of respiratory and cardiopulmonary parasitic nematodes was conducted. Both host species harbored Eucoleus aerophilus, E. boehmi and Crenosoma vulpis, whereas Angiostrongylus vasorum was found only in foxes. A high prevalence of infection (72.6 %) was noted for E. aerophilus in foxes. The remaining parasite species occurred less frequently in both host species. In all species where it could be quantiﬁ ed, a high degree of parasite aggregation within host individuals was noted. Single species infections were most common, whereas two and three species infections occurred less frequently in both host species. The distribution of abundance of E. aerophilus was affected by host sex, with abundances higher in male foxes. Sampling site and year inﬂ uenced abundance variation in E. boehmi.
Suli, Tamás; Kozderović, Gordana; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Simin, Stanislav; Simin, Verica; Lalošević, Vesna
In: Iranian Journal of Parasitology, 13 (4), pp. 594-601, 2018.
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Background: Blastocystis is a common protist colonizing the gastrointestinal tract of humans and various animals. Pigs have been suggested to be a reservoir for human Blastocystis infections because of high prevalence of the parasite in these animals and the presence of zoonotic subtypes. Nevertheless, epidemiological data is often misinterpreted due to the lack of standard diagnostic procedures. This study aimed to compare the sensitivity of different diagnostic techniques in detection of Blastocystis sp. in pigs. Methods: Overall, 48 individual faecal samples were collected from pigs reared in an intensive farming system (Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia) and were tested by microscopic examination of direct wet mount, in vitro cultivation in modified Jones' medium and conventional PCR for rRNA gene. Results: Xenic in vitro cultivation in Jones’ medium showed higher sensitivity than direct wet mount when we compared it with PCR. Namely, the estimated sensitivity of direct wet mount was 46.15%, while the sensitivity of in vitro cultivation was 84.62%. Conclusion: Low sensitivity of conventional parasitological compared to molecular methods is proven. Thus, reports on prevalence that rely solely on microscopy of faecal samples (unprocessed or concentrated) are probably underestimating the true prevalence of the parasite.
Cimpean, Anca Maria; Lalošević, Dušan; Lalošević, Vesna; Banović, Pavle; Raica, Marius; Mederle, Ovidiu Alexandru
In: In Vivo, 32 (4), pp. 791-798, 2018.
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To characterize baby hamster kidney fibroblast (BHK 21/C13) cells and test the effects of antibodies against podoplanin and disodium cromolyn on BHK 21/C13 cell line-derived tumors grown on chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM).
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
BHK 21/C13 cell-derived fibrosarcomas developed in hamsters were implanted on CAM and treated with anti-podoplanin antibodies and disodium cromolyn. BHK 21/C13 cell immunophenotype was assessed.
Fibrosarcoma cells were positive for vimentin, CD117, smooth muscle actin, vascular endothelial growth factor epidermal growth factor receptor, homebox prospero gene 1 and negative for platelet-derived growth factor B, neuron-specific enolase, S100, CD34, Ewing sarcoma and podoplanin. CAM-grown fibrosarcomas were highly sensitive to disodium cromolyn and anti-podoplanin antibodies.
Immunophenotyping BHK 21/C13 cells and their response to drugs represent the first step in revealing cell line utility and a reliable tool for experimental cancer research.
In: MD-Medical Data, 9 (3), pp. 185-187, 2017.
Scolopendra cingulata (Laterille, 1829) was noticed sixty years ago for the first time in one location in Serbia and since then data about it are scarce. It represents the biggest centipede in Europe and only one that can seriously harm humans. Scolopendrism in Republic of Serbia is a true rarity and until now there has been no case report of harming human by centipede Scolopendra cingulata (Laterille, 1829). Patient aged 85, was stung on his right leg toe by unknown centipede in the toilet of his home. The centipede was afterwards identified as Scolopendra cingulata. As a chief complaint patient describes intense pain at the sting site and burning feeling that spreads to the hip joint. The objective finding revealed a slight redness of the affected area. He was ordinated 20mg chloropyramine (Synopen), 2x4mg dexamethasone and 40mg methylprednisolone i.v. 24 hours after centipede attack pain was completely gone and the patient could walk freely. Although there is a possibility that a species located in our country's territory exhibits phenotypes and genotype differences in relation to the more widely described Mediterranean type, each human bitten by i.e. that come into contact with Scolopendra cingulata venom should be taken seriously in order to facilitate the patient's symptoms, manage constant monitoring and prevent the development of isolated or associated complications with potential comorbidities of the patient.
Ristanović, Elizabeta; Atanasievska, Sonja; Protić-Đokić, Vesna; Hinić, Nataša; Lalošević, Dušan
In: MD Medical review, 9 (3), pp. 143-147, 2017.
Lyme borreliosis is a multi-system disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by hard ticks Ixodes spp. The most common clinical manifestation is the skin lesion (erythema migrans), however there is a tendency of the pathogen to spread and cause damages to the joints, nervous and cardiovascular system. The diagnosis of Lyme disease is based primarily on clinical findings, epidemiological and anamnestic data and laboratory test results. The application of the modern real-time PCR method allows us to test the skin in tick bite area for a presence of B. burgdorferi. In the diagnosis of Lyme disease, we often use indirect methods (TIIF, ELISA, Western blot) for detecting specific IgM and IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi in serum, liquor and synovial fluid. To confirm the diagnosis, the presence of IgG antibodies should be demonstrated, since the presence of IgM is not a relible indicator of a recent infection. When interpreting immunodiagnostic test results it has to be considered that there are a lot of variability as the phenotype characteristics of borrelia, different antigenic structures, different geographical distribution, phase varies in duration of the disease, characteristics of individual immune responses, presence of other diseases as well as the applied antibiotic treatment, which all can affect the outcome. Due to the high presence of infected ticks in our geographical area, it is necessary to provide continuous preventive measures, epidemiological monitoring and improvement of the diagnostic and therapeutic approach in the treatment of Lyme borreliosis.
Lalošević, Dušan; Lalošević, Vesna; Simin, Verica; Miljević, Milan; Čabrilo, Borislav; Čabrilo, Olivera Bjelić
In: European Journal of Wildlife Research, 62 (6), pp. 793-796, 2016, ISSN: 1612-4642.
Tags: carnivores, echinococcosis, Echinococcus multilocularis Search subject for Echinococcus multilocularis, foxes, intestines, jackals, monitoring, parasites, Rabies, Serbia, Southern European region| | |
Foxes and jackals from the Vojvodina Province of Serbia were examined for the presence of echinococcosis. Animals were collected as part of routine rabies monitoring and autopsied; their intestines were checked for parasites. Out of 112 examined foxes, echinococcosis was found in 20 (17.9 %); of 28 examined jackals, 4 were infected (14.3 %). Morphological analysis confirmed the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis. This is the first record of E. multilocularis in foxes or other carnivorous mammals in Serbia.
AIKIMBAYEV, Alim; BRIGGS, Deborah; COLTAN, Gabriel; Dodet, Betty; Farahtaj, Firouzeh; IMNADZE, Paata; KOREJWO, Joanna; MOISEIEVA, Anna; Usluer, Gaye; Tordo, Noel; Vodopija, Rodovan; Vranješ, Nenad
In: Zoonoses and Public Health, pp. 219–226, 2014.
MEEREB is an informal network of rabies experts from the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, seeking to eliminate rabies from the region. They met for the second time to review the current rabies situation, both globally and in their respective countries, highlighting current rabies control problems and potential solutions. Success stories in Latin America, in Western Europe, in some Asian countries, as well as in Croatia and Serbia prove that elimination of human rabies is achievable in the MEEREB region. It requires political willingness and cooperation of all stakeholders, including Ministries of Health and of Agriculture; adequate management of animal bites through post-exposure prophylaxis; pre-exposure prophylaxis for populations at high risk of rabies exposure, animal vaccination and humane control of stray dog populations. MEEREB members called for a regional initiative for rabies elimination in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. They are confident that the elimination of human rabies of canine origin can be achieved in the region through adopting a One Health approach, and that campaigns for rabies elimination will have significant benefit for public health, including strengthening the structure for control of other zoonoses.
Lalošević, Vesna; Lalošević, Dušan; Čapo, Ivan; Simin, Verica; Galfi, Annamaria; Traversa, Donato
In: Parasite, 20 (3), pp. 1-6, 2013.
The respiratory capillariid nematode Eucoleus aerophilus (Creplin, 1839) infects wild and domestic carnivores and, occasionally, humans. Thus far, a dozen of human infections have been published in the literature but it cannot be ruled out that lung capillariosis is underdiagnosed in human medicine. Also, the apparent spreading of E. aerophilus in different geographic areas spurs new studies on the epidemiology of this nematode. After the recognition of the first human case of E. aerophilus infection in Serbia, there is a significant merit in enhancing knowledge on the distribution of the nematode. In the present work the infection rate of pulmonary capillariosis was investigated in 70 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the northern part of Serbia by autopsy. The estimated infection rate with Eucoleus aerophilus was 84%. In contrast, by copromicroscopic examination only 38% of foxes were positive. In addition, 10 foxes were investigated for the closely related species in nasal cavity, Eucoleus boehmi, and nine were positive. Our study demonstrates one of the highest infection rates of pulmonary capillariosis in foxes over the world.
In: The Open Inflammation Journal, 5 , pp. 1-9, 2012.
Current definition of inflammation by its cardinal signs is obsolete and unsuitable for guiding adequate therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, present theory of the inflammatory process regarding vascular phenomena as essential for generation of cardinal signs is invalid and unable to explain well established empirical facts, particularly the extent of the osmotic pressure and temperature variations within the inflamed tissue.
From five cardinal signs, there is actually just one specific macroscopic sign of inflammation, namely localized edema. Further, the driving force for tissue fluid accumulation is defined in biochemical terms and as such taken for the definition of the inflammatory process. Inflammation may be defined as a degenerative process which is intense enough to cause local accumulation of low molecular weight catabolic products, which in turn elevates tissue osmotic pressure that attracts extra fluid, with or without heat release sufficient for significant elevation of tissue temperature. This process is in a sharp contrast to the pathogenesis of burns, where externally applied heat causes a process that is in essence opposite to inflammation, bearing only some superficial similarities with the latter.
The inflammatory process is itself a pathological process, whereas the natural anti-inflammatory response that ensues after acute inflammation tends to reverse tissue homeostasis towards normality and should therefore be regarded as a true defensive reaction of the affected tissue.
Based on the therapeutic principle of reverse thermodynamics, heat application to the inflamed tissue is an obvious, yet non-exclusive therapeutic choice that follows from the given universal definition of inflammation.
Simin, Verica; Lalošević, Vesna; Galfi, Annamaria; Božić, Milovan; Obradović, Nemanja; Lalošević, Dušan
In: BiologiaSerbica, 34 (1-2), pp. 71-74, 2012.
Crenosoma vulpis is a lung worm which aff ects carnivorous mammals. Data on the presence of C. vulpis in foxes in Serbia is lacking. In the present study, C. vulpis was found in the fox population of Vojvodina province, Serbia, during the course of examinations for Eucoleus aerophilus. Foxes were collected throughout Vojvodina province: most of the foxes had either been previously suspected of rabies or regularly shot in 2011. carcasses were opened and tracheas were taken from larynx to bifurcation, and preserved in 30% ethanol for later examination. For the purpose of examination, the tracheas were opened on the anterior side using scissors. parasites were collected under a stereomicroscope by scraping of mucosa and wet-mounted in glycerin-ethanol or lactophenol. Crenosoma vulpis was found in 5 out of 38 foxes, for a prevalence rate of 13.15%. a total of 8 male, 15 female and 45 larvae was found. cohabitation of foxes with stray dogs and cats may be a potential source of parasite transmission in urban environments.
McElhinney, L. M.; Marston, D. A.; Freuling, C. M.; Cragg, W.; Stankov, Srđan; Lalošević, Dušan; Müller, T.; Fooks, A. R.
In: Journal of General Virology, (92), pp. 2171–2180, 2011.
Molecular studies of European classical rabies viruses (RABV) have revealed a number of geographically clustered lineages. To study the diversity of Balkan RABV, partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences were analysed from a unique panel of isolates (n5210), collected from various hosts between 1972 and 2006. All of the Balkan isolates grouped within the European/Middle East Lineage, with the majority most closely related to East European strains. A number of RABV from Bosnia & Herzegovina and Montenegro, collected between 1986 and 2006, grouped with the West European strains, believed to be responsible for the rabies epizootic that spread throughout Europe in the latter half of the 20th Century. In contrast, no Serbian RABV belonged to this sublineage. However, a distinct group of Serbian fox RABV provided further evidence for the southwards wildlife-mediated movement of rabies from Hungary, Romania and Serbia into Bulgaria. To determine the optimal region for evolutionary analysis, partial, full and concatenated N-gene and glycoprotein (G) gene sequences were compared. Whilst both the divergence times and evolutionary rates were similar irrespective of genomic region, the 95% highest probability density (HPD) limits were significantly reduced for full N-gene and concatenated NG-gene sequences compared with partial gene sequences. Bayesian coalescent analysis estimated the date of the most common recent ancestor of the Balkan RABV to be 1885 (95% HPD, 1852–1913), and skyline plots suggested an expansion of the local viral population in 1980–1990, which coincides with the observed emergence of fox rabies in the region.
Aylan, Orhan; El-Sayed, Aly Fahmy Mohamed; Farahtaj, Firouzeh; Janani, Ali R.; Lugach, Olga; Tarkhan-Mouravi, Olgha; Usluer, Gaye; Vodopija, Rodovan; Vranješ, Nenad; Tordo, Noel; Dodet, Betty
In: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research, Advances in Preventive Medicine, 2011 (812515), pp. 4, 2010.
Tags: Rabies| | |
Rabies is a threat in all parts of the world where animal reservoirs persists, including Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Rabies experts from seven Middle East and Eastern European countries (Croatia, Egypt, Georgia, Iran, Serbia, Turkey, and Ukraine) met for two days in Istanbul, Turkey (June 8-9, 2010), to exchange information on the epidemiological situation concerning human and animal rabies in their respective countries and to discuss strategies for rabies elimination and control. They decided to establish a regional network, the Middle East and Eastern Europe Rabies Expert Bureau (MEEREB), a regional network of experts, to increase collaboration in rabies prevention and control at the local, regional, and global levels.
Lalošević, Dušan; Lalošević, Vesna; Stojšić-Milosavljević, Anastazija; Stojšić, Đurica
In: International Journal of Cardiology, 145 (3), pp. e96–e98, 2010.
A case of a patient who developed an acute myocarditis due to Lyme disease is reported. An increased serum antibody titer to Borrelia burgdorferi suggested a diagnosis and in addition of basic clinical methods, endomyocardial biopsy performed and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The lumen of myocardial capillaries was founded mostly filled with detritus and fibrin precipitate, between them several bacterial fragments were identified. The electron-microscopic characteristics of the microorganisms in this specimen, revealing irregularly coiled appearance and consistent thickness of 0.2 μm, correspond to the spiral-like structure of Lyme disease borrelia. The presence of fibrin deposits on the capillary endothelium and necrosis of myocardiocytes, suggests that the cardiopathy in our patient was represent borrelia-mediated damage of the hearth microcirculation.
Lalošević, Dušan; Lalošević, Vesna; Lazarević-Ivanc, Lj; Knežević, Ivana
In: Developments in biologicals, 131 , pp. 421-9, 2008.
Veterinary rabies vaccines produced in BHK-21/C13 permanent cell cultures have been used for a long period of time and have been proven as efficacious and safe. A candidate vaccine for human use (YU BHK Rabivak) was developed at the Pasteur Institute, Novi Sad, Serbia on the basis of the fixed rabies virus strain "L. Pasteur 2061/Vero 15 pas" using BHK 21/C13 as a cell substrate for vaccine production. To test the vaccine immunogenicity, a clinical trial was conducted involving 164 subjects between 18 and 60 years of age, immunized either with the YU BHK Rabivak vaccine candidate orwith a commercially available vaccine (Rabipur). Three groups of subjects were immunized with either vaccine by intramuscular administration in the deltoid region, following a pre-exposure regimen on days 0, 7 and 21, or the Essen or Zagreb post-exposure regimens. Rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) titres were determined by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) 21 and 30-45 days post vaccination. A protective titre of VNAs (>0.5 IU/ml) was found in all subjects vaccinated. Dynamics of the immune response showed that 96.4% of the subjects developed protective VNA titres after two doses, 99.3% after three doses and 100% after four and five doses of the candidate YU BHK Rabivak vaccine. There was a low reactogenicity without serious adverse events indicating a satisfactory safety profile in humans. Results obtained in this study indicate that BHK 21 cells offer the possibility of producing an efficacious and safe cell-culture rabies vaccine for humane use.