Publications and scientific papers of Pasteur Institute…
Banović, Pavle; Díaz-Sánchez, Adrian Alberto; Simin, Verica; Foucault-Simonin, Angelique; Galon, Clemence; Chuang, Alejandra Wu; Mijatović, Dragana; Obregon, Dasiel; Moutailler, Sara; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro
In: Frontiers in Microbiology, 2022.
Ticks carry numerous pathogens that, if transmitted, can cause disease in susceptible humans and animals. The present study describes our approach on how to investigate clinical presentations following tick bites in humans. To this aim, the occurrence of major tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in human blood samples (n = 85) and the ticks collected (n = 93) from the same individuals were tested using an unbiased high-throughput pathogen detection microfluidic system. The clinical symptoms were characterized in enrolled patients. In patients with suspected TBP infection, serological assays were conducted to test for the presence of antibodies against specific TBPs. A field study based on One Health tenets was further designed to identify components of a potential chain of infection resulting in Rickettsia felis infection in one of the patients. Ticks species infesting humans were identified as Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.), Dermacentor reticulatus, and Haemaphysalis punctata. Five patients developed local skin lesions at the site of the tick bite including erythema migrans, local non-specific reactions, and cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction. Although Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Babesia microti, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Candidatus Cryptoplasma sp. DNAs were detected in tick samples, different Rickettsia species were the most common TBPs identified in the ticks. The presence of TBPs such as Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Borrelia lusitaniae, Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia afzelii, A. phagocytophilum, and B. microti in ticks was further confirmed by DNA sequencing. Two of the patients with local skin lesions had IgG reactive against spotted fever group rickettsiae, while IgM specific to B. afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia spielmanii were detected in the patient with erythema migrans. Although R. felis infection was detected in one human blood sample, none of the components of the potential chain of infection considered in this study tested positive to this pathogen either using direct pathogen detection in domestic dogs or xenodiagnosis in ticks collected from domestic cats. The combination of high-throughput screening of TBPs and One Health approaches might help characterize chains of infection leading to human infection by TBPs, as well as prevalence of emerging rickettsial pathogens in the Balkan region.
Charles, Roxanne A.; Bermúdez, Sergio; Banović, Pavle; Obregon, Dasiel; Díaz-Sánchez, Adrian Alberto; Corona-González, Belkis; Etter, Eric Marcel Charles; González, Islay Rodríguez; Gaffar, Abdul; Jabbar, Abdul; Moutailler, Sara; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro
In: Pathogens, vol. 10, no. 10, 2021.
Ticks have complex life cycles which involve blood-feeding stages found on wild and
domestic animals, with humans as accidental hosts. At each blood-feeding stage, ticks can transmit
and/or acquire pathogens from their hosts. Therefore, the circulation of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs),
especially the zoonotic ones, should be studied in a multi-layered manner, including all components
of the chain of infections, following the ‘One Health’ tenets. The implementation of such an approach
requires coordination among major stakeholders (such as veterinarians, physicians, acarologists,
and researchers) for the identification of exposure and infection risks and application of effective
prevention measures. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge on the epidemiology of
tick-borne diseases in Central America and the Caribbean and the challenges associated with the
implementation of ‘One Health’ surveillance and control programs in the region.
Banović, Pavle; Díaz-Sánchez, Adrian Alberto; Galon, Clemence; Foucault-Simonin, Angélique; Simin, Verica; Mijatović, Dragana; Papić, Luka; Wu-Chuang, Alejandra; Obregon, Dasiel; Moutailler, Sara; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro
In: One Health, 2021.
Tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) have complex life cycles involving tick vectors and vertebrate hosts. However, there is limited empirical evidence on the zoonotic circulation of TBPs. In this study, we used a One Health approach to study the possible circulation of TBPs in ticks, animals and humans within a rural household in the foothills of the Fruška Gora mountain, northern Serbia. The presence of TBP DNA was assessed using microfluidic PCR (25 bacterial species, 7 parasite species, 5 bacterial genera, 3 parasite genera) in animal, human and tick samples and the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) RNA was screened for using RT-qPCR on tick samples. In addition, Lyme borreliosis serology was assessed in patient sera. Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes ricinus ticks were identified on dogs and Haemaphysalis punctata was identified on house walls. Rickettsia helvetica was the most common pathogen detected in pooled R. sanguineus and I. ricinus tick samples, followed by Hepatozoon canis. None of the H. punctata tick samples tested positive for the presence of TBPs. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia monacensis were the most frequent pathogens detected in dogs, followed by Rickettsia felis, whereas Anaplasma bovis was the only pathogen found in one of the goats tested. None of the human blood samples collected from family members tested positive for the presence of TBPs. Although microfluidic PCR did not detect Borrelia sp. in any of the tested tick or blood samples, a family member with a history of Lyme disease was seropositive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). We conclude that, despite the presence of TBPs in tick and vertebrate reservoirs, there is no evidence of infection with TBPs across various components of the epidemiological chain in a rural Fruška Gora household.
Banović, Pavle; Obregon, Dasiel; Mijatović, Dragana; Simin, Verica; Stankov, Srđan; Turkulov, Vesna; Sević, Siniša; Budakov-Obradovic, Zorana; Bujandric, Nevenka; Grujic, Jasmina; Díaz-Sánchez, Adrian Alberto; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro
In: Pathogens, vol. 10, 2021.
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), caused by the TBE virus (TBEV), is a life-threatening disease
with clinical symptoms ranging from non-specific to severe inflammation of the central nervous
system. Despite TBE is a notifiable disease in Serbia since 2004, there is no active TBE surveillance
program for the serologic or molecular screening of TBEV infection in humans in the country. This
prospective cohort study aimed to assess the TBEV exposure among tick-infested individuals in
Serbia during the year 2020. A total of 113 individuals exposed to tick bites were recruited for the
study and screened for anti-TBEV antibodies using a commercial indirect fluorescent antibody test
(IFA) test. Blood samples from 50 healthy donors not exposed to tick bites were included as a control
group. Most of the enrolled patients reported infestations with one tick, being I. ricinus the most
frequent tick found in the participants. The TBEV seroprevalence was higher (13.27%, 15 total 113)
in tick-infested individuals than in healthy donors (4%, 2 total 50), although the difference was
not significant. Notably, male individuals exposed to tick bites showed five times higher relative
risk (RR) of being TBEV-seropositive than healthy donors of the same gender (RR= 5.1, CI = 1.6–19;
p = 0.007). None of the seropositive individuals developed clinical manifestations of TBE, but the first
clinical-stage of Lyme borreliosis (i.e., erythema migrans) was detected in seven of them. Potential
TBEV foci were identified in rural areas, mostly in proximity or within the Fruška Gora mountain.
We conclude that the Serbian population is at high risk of TBEV exposure. Further epidemiological
studies should focus on potential TBEV foci identified in this study. The implementation of active
surveillance for TBEV might contribute to evaluating the potential negative impact of TBE in Serbia.
Adrian Alberto Díaz-Sánchez Pavle Banović, Clemence Galon
In: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, 2020.
Verica, Simin; Mijatović, Dragana; Tomanović, Snežana; Miljević, Milan; Čabrilo, Borislav; Ivana, Bogdan; Banović, Pavle
In: Veterinarski glasnik, 2020.
Introduction. The primary objectives of this study were (1) to determine the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in ticks removed from patients for the purpose of singling out sites with increased risk of Lyme borreliosis, and (2) to determine the presence of IgM and/or IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s. l.) complex in sera of patients who had ticks removed
Materials and Methods. From 108 ticks removed from patients, all were examined zoologically and a sub-sample of 91 ticks was tested using PCR analysis to determine the presence of DNA indicating B. burgdorferi infection. To detect anti-Borrelia IgM and/or IgG antibodies in 61 patients bitten by ticks, we used line recombinant immunoblot test.
Results and Conclusions. The most common tick identified was Ixodes ricinus. B. burgdorferi s. l. was present in 37 of 91 tested ticks (40.7%). Seroconversion against B. burgdorferi s. l. antigen was detected in 12 of 61 patients (19.7%). Most of the infected ticks were from the province of Vojvodina (11 municipalities), with the city of Novi Sad proving to be the site with the highest number of infected ticks, 6 in total.